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09 Juni 2011

 Passive Voice (kalimat pasif)



Kalimat pasif adalah susunan kaliamat yang dalam bahasa Indonesia dikenal dengan kalimat yang menggunakan kata kerja berawalan –di atau –ter . Tapi, dalam bahasa Inggris kalaimat pasif ditandai dengan penggunaan “To be+ V3­ . Structure: Subject + To be + V3 + Object  

Beberapa aturan merubah kalimat aktif menjadi kalimat pasif :
1.    Subjek di kalimat aktif menjadi objek pada kalimat pasif. Objek pada kaliamat aktif menjadi subjek pada kaliam pasif
2.    Pada kaliamt pasif kata kerja di kalimat aktif di rubah menjadi V3 yang didahului dengan To be (is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been) dan dikuti kata by(oleh)
3.    Penggunaan To be disesuaikan dengan tenses kalimat aktifnya
4.    Kalimat aktif harus mempunyai objek. Example:Aktif : My Father drives the pedicap everyday
                                                                                                S          P           O
Pasif : The pedicap is driven by my father every day 
                S               P               O
Pola kalimat pasif negative : 
Suject + To be +not +V3 +Object
 
Pola kalimat pasif tanya : 
Auxelery / To be +Subject +V3 +Object
 

ELIPTICAL SENTENCE                Eliptical sentence adalah penggabungan2 kalimat yang berbeda subjeknya tapi sama predikatnya menjadi satu kalimat. Apabila kalimatnya positif, maka penggabungannya menggunakan SO / TOO (juga) 
___________ , (and) + auxiliary + Subject
 atau
___________, (and) + Subject +auxiliary + too   



          Penggunaan auxiliary(do, did, dose, done, etc) berdasar kalimatnya.
Contoh :1.    -   My parents visit my grand mother twice a week-   My uncle visits my grand mother twice a week-> My parents visit my rand mother twoce a week, So does my uncle
-> My parents visit my grand mother twice a week, my uncle does too          Untuk kalimat Negatif negative polanya adalah : 
__________ , (and) + Subject + auxiliary + no + eitheratau
__________ , (and) + Neither + auxiliary + Subject   




Contoh :1.    -   Bagas never reads the news paper
-   Nisrina never reads the news paper
-> Bagas never reads the news paper, Nisrina doesn’t either
-> Bagas never reads the news paper, Neither does Nisrina

Direct Speech
           A Direct Speech is the exact word of someone. When we write a direct sentence, we should put quotation marks (“…..”). For example “ She said that she was reading a story book.”Indirect Speech
          In a indirect speech, we retell what someone has said by saying, for example Mr. Parker said, Ms. Anita replied, the girl answered, etc.Furthermore,we have to changed certain things as follow:1.  1.  PronounsWhen we changed a direct speech into an direct one, you have to modify the pronouns in order to adjust or that indirect speech.
Example:Direct speech
Dion said, “ I want to use your pen.”Indirect Speech
Dion said that he wanted to use my  pen.
2.   2. Adverbs of TimeAdverbs of time should also be adjusted to make the statement clear.
Example:Direct Speech
Nana said, “We are oing tracking tomorrow.”Indirect Speech
Nana said that they were going tracking the following day.”
Here are the changes of adverbs of time.
here             à there
these(days)   à those (days)Today           à yesterday
next(week)   à the following (week)Last week     à the week before / the previous week
now             à then
this(evening) à that (evening)(a week) ago à (a week) before
tomorrow     à the following day
3.  3.  TensesWe have to modify the tenses as well because the time setting of direct and direct speechs is different.
Direct Speech Indirect Speech Simple Present
Dion said, “I use your pen.” Simple Past
Dion said that he used my pen Simple Past
Dion said. “I used your pen.” Past Perfect
Dion said that he had used my pen Present Perfect
Dion said, “I have used your pen.” Past Perfect
Dion said that he had used my pen Present Continuous
Dion said, “I am using your pen.” Past Continuous
Dion said that he was using my pen Present Future
Dion said, “I will use your pen.” Past Future
Dion said that he would use my pen

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